How is the termination of transcription different in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

mRNAs in prokaryotes tend to contain many different genes on a single mRNA meaning they are polycystronic. Termination in prokaryotes is done by either rho-dependent or rho-independent mechanisms. In eukaryotes transcription is terminated by two elements: a poly(A) signal and a downstream terminator sequence (7).

Also asked, how is transcription terminated in prokaryotes?

Termination in Prokaryotes Rho-dependent termination is controlled by the rho protein, which tracks along behind the polymerase on the growing mRNA chain. The interaction with rho releases the mRNA from the transcription bubble. Rho-independent termination is controlled by specific sequences in the DNA template strand.

Secondly, how does termination of transcription occur in eukaryotes? The termination of transcription is different for the three different eukaryotic RNA polymerases. When the 5′-exonulease “catches up” to RNA Polymerase II by digesting away all the overhanging RNA, it helps disengage the polymerase from its DNA template strand, finally terminating that round of transcription.

Consequently, what is the major difference in the termination stage of translation between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Translation has three main stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. These differ slightly in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms: in prokaryotes, translation occurs in the cytoplasm, while in eukaryotes, translation takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum.

How is translation initiated in prokaryotes versus eukaryotes?

Translation is a universal process occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The fundamental process of translation is same in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Members of both groups uses information present in mRNA, which is came from the DNA by transcription, to synthesize proteins with ribosome as the machinery.

14 Related Question Answers Found

What is the first step during transcription initiation in prokaryotes?

Initiation. Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a “promoter” to form an RNA polymerase-promoter “closed complex”.

How does termination of transcription occur?

Transcription termination. RNA polymerase will keep transcribing until it gets signals to stop. The process of ending transcription is called termination, and it happens once the polymerase transcribes a sequence of DNA known as a terminator.

How is translation terminated?

Translation ends in a process called termination. Termination happens when a stop codon in the mRNA (UAA, UAG, or UGA) enters the A site. After the small and large ribosomal subunits separate from the mRNA and from each other, each element can (and usually quickly does) take part in another round of translation.

Where does transcription occur in prokaryotes?

Prokaryotic transcription occurs in the cytoplasm alongside translation. Prokaryotic transcription and translation can occur simultaneously. This is impossible in eukaryotes, where transcription occurs in a membrane-bound nucleus while translation occurs outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm.

Where does transcription occur in eukaryotes?

In a prokaryotic cell, transcription and translation are coupled; that is, translation begins while the mRNA is still being synthesized. In a eukaryotic cell, transcription occurs in the nucleus, and translation occurs in the cytoplasm.

What are the steps of transcription?

Transcription takes place in three steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. The steps are illustrated in the Figure below. Initiation is the beginning of transcription. It occurs when the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to a region of a gene called the promoter.

What does Rho protein do?

Rho protein functions as a hexamer of a single polypeptide chain with 419 residues, which is the product of the rho gene. It is an RNA-binding protein with the capacity to hydrolyze ATP and other nucleoside triphosphates.

Where does splicing occur?

For nuclear-encoded genes, splicing takes place within the nucleus either during or immediately after transcription. For those eukaryotic genes that contain introns, splicing is usually required in order to create an mRNA molecule that can be translated into protein.

What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication?

In prokaryotic cells, there is only one point of origin, replication occurs in two opposing directions at the same time, and takes place in the cell cytoplasm. Eukaryotic cells on the other hand, have multiple points of origin, and use unidirectional replication within the nucleus of the cell.

What is the final product of translation?


What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA?

The main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA is that prokaryotic mRNA is polycistronic, whereas eukaryotic mRNA is monocistronic. Furthermore, several structural genes of an operon are transcribed into a single mRNA while eukaryotic mRNA contains a single gene transcribed into an mRNA molecule.

Is there a Shine Dalgarno sequence in eukaryotes?

Shine-Dalgarno sequence in Prokaryotes is the the ribosome landing site. 30S ribosome lands at shine-dalgarno sequence and will scan through the RNA to reach initiator AUG. Initiator AUG may not be immediately after shine-dalgarno sequence. In Eukaryotes, ribosome recruitement is through 5’cap at the end of the mRNA.

Why is translation faster in prokaryotes?

There are several factors that can account for the speed of translation in prokaryotes. Perhaps the most obvious is that there is no nucleus in prokaryotes— it takes time to move the mRNA from the nucleus, where it is transcribed, to the cytoplasm, where ribosomes will translate it.

Which molecules are involved in translation?

The molecules involved in translation are mRNA, ribosomes, and tRNA. During translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) attaches to the ribosome.

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